Groundnut Farming as an oilseed crop. Its plant is of tropical climate. Due to this, its cultivation was done at the time of Kharif and Zaid. Groundnut seeds are used to extract large amounts of oil, after which it is used the most in food.
The protein content in peanuts is more than 25%, according to which it is compared with high protein items like milk, egg and meat in terms of protein. Its fruits are found inside the ground, which must be dug out of the soil. Apart from eating, peanuts are also used to make many things. Good yield can be obtained from one hectare of groundnut field, from which the farmer brothers can also earn a good profit.
Soil, Climate and Temperature
Light yellow loamy soil is required for a good groundnut crop. The land in its cultivation should have proper drainage. It should not be cultivated in waterlogged and hard clay soils. 6 to 7 P.H. The land of value is considered suitable for its cultivation. Its cultivation is done more in dry regions. Its plants grow well in heat and light, requiring 60 to 130 cm of rain.
Groundnut plants can tolerate a minimum temperature of 15 degrees and a maximum of 35 degrees. Apart from this, plants need average temperatures to grow well. Also, for better soil Powertrac euro 50 tractor model is best for every farming task.
Field Preparation & Fertiliser
Peanut cultivation requires friable soil. For this, first of all, the ground of the field is deeply ploughed with turning ploughs. Then, after pressing, the field is left open for some time, and sufficient sunlight gets into the field’s soil.
If you want to use chemical fertilisers instead of natural manure in the groundnut field, you must apply NPK before the last ploughing. The quantity of 60 kg is given in the area. Apart from this, 250 kg of gypsum must be spread in a one-hectare field. Neem cake is beneficial in the groundnut field and gives a good yield. Therefore, 400 kg of neem cake had to be sprayed in the one-hectare area at the time of the last ploughing.
Method of Planting
Groundnut seeds are planted in the form of sources. Before sowing the seeds in the field, the seeds are removed from the beans, after which they are treated with the amount of mancozeb or carbendazim. Due to this, the roots become disease-free, and their germination is also good. Therefore, it is best to sow its seeds between June and July.
Planting seeds is done on flat land by machine method, in which a distance of 30 cm is kept between each row for low spreading tufted variety, and 45 to 50 cm distance is maintained between each row for wide-spreading variety. In these rows, each seed is planted at a distance of 15 cm to a depth of 6 cm. For beneficial planting Swaraj 963 tractor model is best and it comes in an economical price range.
Groundnut crop is a Kharif crop, which its plants do not require much irrigation because the Kharif crop is done near the rainy season. If the rain does not come on time, its plants should be watered as needed. Plants need water at an interval of 20 days after the rainy season. There is a need to maintain the moisture content in the field when the peanut plants start producing flowers and pods. This gives a good yield.
Weeds cause more damage to groundnut plants, and if there are more weeds in its crop, there can be a reduction of up to 30 per cent in production. This is because its beans are in the average depth of the ground, and the roots of weeds named Duba, Samak, Metha and Pyaza are also in the average depth of the land, due to which the weed causes more damage to the plants.
Both natural and chemical methods are used for weed control in groundnut plants. To get control of weeds by a natural process, three to four hoeing of its field is done. Its first weeding is done after 20 to 25 days, and the remaining weeding is done at an interval of 20 days. To get control of weeds by chemical method, 3 litres of Pendimethalin in 500 litres of water is mixed well, which has to be sprayed two days after planting the seeds.
Harvesting & Yield
Groundnut crop is dug up after 4 months. When its plants appear fully ripe, then they should be excavated. Currently, the groundnut crop is being excavated by machine, due to which the farmer brothers are also saving their time and money. However, after harvesting the crop, they are dried in intense smoke, due to which the beans’ moisture is completely lost. Moreover, due to humidity, the risk of mould growth increases.
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